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Formative Assessment Classroom Techniques (FACTs)

Seventy-five formative assessment classroom techniques (also known as the acronym- FACTs) are the main focus of the "FACTs Books". These books provide a rich repertoire of purposeful methods that weave formative assessment into the process of teaching and learning. Each book has parallel chapters which include an introduction to formative assessment, including how to make the shift to a formative assessment-centered classroom; how to integrate FACTs with instruction and learning; considerations for selecting, implementing, and using data from the FACTs; and the heart of the book- a description of 75 strategies. Each FACT includes a detailed description of the FACT, how the FACT promotes student learning, how the FACT informs instruction, tips for designing and administering the FACT, general implementation attributes (e.g.- ease of use, time, cognitive demand), ways to modify the FACT for diverse learners, caveats to watch out for, and other disciplines the FACT can be used in besides science or mathematics. What makes these two books unique compared to other formative assessment strategy books is that each strategy is accompanied by a specifc example in science or mathematics and both books are authored by specialists in science and mathematics so that the examples are appropriate for the discipline. However, most of the strategies can be used in other disciplines as well- teachers of other disciplines will find the FACT descriptions detailed enough so that they can come up with their own example.

 

Science Formative Assessment- 75 Practical Strategies for Linking Assessment, Instruction, and Learning by Page Keeley (2008) is published by Corwin Press and co-published by the National Science Teachers Association (NSTA). A bestseller, this book was #1 on the top 25 NSTA bestsellers for 25 consecutive weeks and continues to be a best-seller! The book includes a description of 75 FACTs (Formative Assessment Classroom Techniques) that can be used for the purposes of eliciting and identifying preconceptions, engaging and motivating students, activating thinking and promoting metacognition, providing stimuli for science argument and discussion, initiating scintific inquiry and idea exploration, supporting concept development and transfer of knowledge, improving questioning and responses, providing feedback, supporting peer and self-assessment, and reflecting on learning. The book describes how to use the FACTs within the SAIL (Science Assessment, Instruction, and Learning) Cycle, a hybrid instructional model of the 5E's and Conceptual Change Model (CCM). Many of the FACTs are used along with the Uncovering Student Ideas in Science probes. The following is a list of the 75 FACTs included in this book (where you see a * denotes that the same strategy is included in the mathematics version of the book):

A&D Statements*     Agreement Circles*     Annotated Student Drawings     Card Sorts*     CCC-Collaborative Clued Corrections*     Chain Notes

Commit and Toss*     Concept Card Mapping*     Concept Cartoons*     Data Match     Directed Paraphrasing     Explanation Analysis

Fact First Questioning*     Familiar Phenomenon Probes     First Word-Last Word     Fishbowl Think Aloud     Fist to Five*     Focused Listing

Four Corners*     Frayer Model*     Friendly Talk Probes*     Give Me Five*     Guided Reciprocal Peer Questioning*     Human Scattergraphs*

Informal Student Interviews     Interest Scale     I Think-We Think     I Used to Think...But Now I Know*     Juicy Questions     Justified List*    

Justified True or False Statements*     K-W-L Variations*     Learning G0als Inventory (LGI)*     Look Back*     Missed Conception     Muddiest Point*

No-Hands Questioning*     Odd One Out*     Paint the Picture     Partner Speaks*     Pass the Question*     A Picture Tells a Thousand Words*

P-E-O (Predict, Explain, Observe)*     POMS-Point of Most Significance*     Popsicle Stick Questioning*     Prefacing Explanations

PVF-Paired Verbal Fluency*     Question Generating*     Recognizing Exceptions     Refutations     Representation Analysis     RERUN

Scientists' Ideas Comparison*     Sequencing*     Sticky Bars*     STIP- Scientific Terminology Inventory Probe     Synectics     Ten-Two*

Student Evaluation of Learning Gains*    Thinking Log*     Think-Pair-Share*     Thought Experiments*     Three Minute Pause*     Three-Two-One*

Traffic Light Cards*     Traffic Light Cups*     Traffic Light Dots*     Two-Minute Paper*     Two or Three Before Me*     Two Stars and a Wish*

Two-Thirds Testing*     Volleyball-Not Ping-Pong*     Wait Time Variations*     What Are You Doing and Why?*     Whiteboarding*

 

Mathematics Formative Assessment- 75 Practical Strategies for Linking Assessment, Instruction, and Learning by Page Keeley and Cheryl Rose Tobey (2011) is published by Corwin Press and co-published by the National Council for the Teaching of Mathematics (NCTM). The book includes a description of 75 FACTs (Formative Assessment Classroom Techniques) that can be used for the purposes of eliciting and identifying preconceptions, engaging and motivating students, activating thinking and promoting metacognition, providing stimuli for math discussion, initiating mathematical inquiry and idea exploration, supporting concept development and transfer of knowledge, improving questioning and responses, providing feedback, supporting peer and self-assessment, and reflecting on learning. The book describes how to use the FACTs within the MAIL (Mathematics Assessment, Instruction, and Learning) Cycle. Many of the FACTs are used along with the Uncovering Student Thinking in Mathematics probes. The following is a list of the 75 FACTs included in this book (where you see a * denotes that the same strategy is included in the science version of the book):

A&D Statements*     Agreement Circles*     Always, Sometimes, or Never True     Card Sorts*     CCC:Collaborative Clued Corrections*

Comments-Only Marking     Commit and Toss*     Concept Attainment Cards     Concept Card Mapping*     Concept Cartoons*

Create the Problem     Every Graph Tells a Story     Example, Non-Example     Fact-First Questioning*     Feedback to Feed-Forward

Fist to Five*     Four Corners*     Frayer Model*     Friendly Talk Probes*     Give Me Five*     Hot Seat Questioning     Human Scattergraph* 

Is It Fair?     I Used to Think...But Now I Know...*     Justified List*     Justified True-False Statements*     K-W-L Variations*    

Learning Goals Inventory (LGI)*     Look Back*     Matching Cards     Mathematician's Ideas Comparison*     More A-More B Probes

Muddiest Point*     No-Hands Questioning*     Odd One Out*     Opposing Views Probes     Overgeneralization Probes     Partner Speaks*

Pass the Problem     P-E-O Probes*     Peer-to-Peer Focused Feedback     A Picture Tells a Thousand Words*     POMS*    

Popsicle Stick Questioning*     PVF: Paired Verbal Fluency*     Question Generating*     Response Cards     Same A-Same B Probes

Sequencing Cards*     Sticky Bars*     Strategy Harvest     Strategy Probe     Student Evaluation of Learning Gains*   Student Interviews*

Terminology Inventory Probe (TIP)*     Ten-Two*     Thinking Log*     Think-Alouds     Think-Pair-Share*     Thought Experiments*

Three-Minute Pause*     3-2-1*     Thumbs Up, Thumbs Down     Traffic Light Cards*     Traffic Light Cups*     Traffic Light Dots*

Two-Minute Paper*     Two or Three Before Me*     Two Stars and a Wish*     Two Thirds Testing*     Volleyball, Not Ping-Pong!

Wait Time Variations*     What Are You Doing and Why?*     Whiteboarding*     Word Sort

 

Each of these books can be ordered from Corwin Press, amazon.com or other online book sellers. The science version can also be ordered from NSTA Press. The mathematics version can also be ordered from NCTM.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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